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Polymorphism In C++

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I'm doing research on type systems. For this project, I'm looking at how Variants, structural subtyping, universal polymorphism, and existential polymorphism are used in popular languages. Such functions are provided by functional languages such as heskell and ocaml. But I'm curious if a popular language like C++ has the above capability. That is, how C++ is implemented.

 

variants

 

subtyping of structural elements

 

polymorphism at all levels

 

Existential polymorphism is a type of polymorphism.

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It does have existential polymorphism (via C++ 20 concepts), it doesn't TRULY have universal polymorphism, universal polymorphism would imply that in a function X, an operation could be performed on a generic type T and generate the same result, no matter what it later monomorphises to, and this is not true in C++.

It does have structural subtyping (inheritance).

And yes we do have variants (assuming you're talking about covariance and contravariance). Please let me know if you meant something else.

And what do you mean polymorphism at all levels? You're gonna have to be more specific.

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@luxiferrwoo, Oh okay Got it 

By saying polymorphism at all levels i mean universal polymorphism and about that i read that the templates resemble universal polymorphism on the surface but are fundamentally different. These are essentially glorified macros with minimal to no type checking (like with macros, both checking and code generation happens after expansion).

Thank you for your reply man

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